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COMMENT 2  (150 words)

Children are prone to abuse at any age, but I chose the infant group to discuss abuse. Infants are the most vulnerable and dependent age group who cannot verbalize anything happening to them. They are more prone to neglect, which could be evident by diaper rash, malnutrition, failure to thrive, ranking poor on the growth chart, not being dressed up according to weather, not keeping him up-to-date on immunization and medical checkups. Physical abuse can be evident by broken bones, cuts, and burns (CDC, 2019).

Another form of abuse is the shaken baby syndrome, which is primarily seen in infants and children younger than age two. It usually occurs when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby will not stop crying. Severe shaking causes the baby’s head to move violently back and forth, resulting in serious and sometimes fatal brain injury. The symptoms and physical findings include altered level of consciousness, irritability, drowsiness, vomiting, seizures, dilated pupils not respond to light, closed head injury bleeding, chest and abdominal injuring, and fracture to the skull (AANS, 2019).

Some cultural practices could be confused as child abuse. According to Hansen (1998), cupping and coining are the cultural practices that could be misinterpreted as child abuse. Cupping is a type of alternative therapy from China. It involves placing cups on the skin to create suction to blood flow and healing. The cupping leaves marks on the skin, which could be interpreted as a sign of abuse.

A registered nurse in the State of California is categorized as a mandatory reporter of abuse. As a mandated reporter, a nurse must report abuse or neglect when she sees as a physical or psychological sign of abuse or neglect or if she is reported by the patient or family. She reports to hospital authorities that further report to social service or the protective services following guidelines. Then protective services will take over from there. Meanwhile, she has to make sure the patient is safe (Board of Registered Nursing, 2010).

Reference

American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) (2019). Shaken Baby Syndrome. Retrieved from https://www.aans.org/en/Patients/Neurosurgical-Conditions-and- Treatments/Shaken-Baby-Syndrome

Board of Registered Nursing (2010) Abuse Reporting Requirements. Retrieved November 28, 2019, from https://www.rn.ca.gov/pdfs/regulations/npr-i-23.pdf.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2019). Violence prevention: preventing child abuse & neglect. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/fastfact.html

Falkner, Angel (2018). Age-Appropriate Approach to Pediatric Health Care Assessment. In Grant Canyon University (Ed.), Health Assessment: Foundations for Effective Practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for- effective-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/2

Hansen, Karen Kirhofer (1998). Folk Remedies and Child Abuse: A Review with Emphasis on Caida de Mollera and Its Relationship to Shaken Baby Syndrome. Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, 22(2) p117-27. Retrieved from https://www-sciencedirect- com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S014521349700135X