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     This section will be covering the historical background of how closed panel HMOS came to be. We will discuss how they differ from other HMOs and PPO plans. This element will be addressed by presenting the relevant information from scholarly sources about managed healthcare organizations and Kaiser Permanente and setting the research context. In addition, this section will cover the specific objectives the project aims to achieve

Problem statement

      In order for cost, quality, and equity in healthcare to be achieved, there needs to be less restrictions on insurance plans, better efficiency, and more cost transparency. Kaiser HMO prides itself on being lean and efficient, however, closed panel HMOs restrict access and utilization due to the oversight and smaller set of resources. This element will be addressed by >>>>>>> highlighting where and when the issue of managed healthcare organizations arises, who it affects and previous attempts to address the research question.