Use your study guide, lectures, notes, and other online resources


Use your study guide, lectures, notes, and other online resources (Google is always your friend if used wisely) to answer the following question. You will rely on the three articles “The Essence of Innocence” “Culture of Violence” and “Heat and Violence” to answer the questions. Try to focus mainly on the abstract, methods, discussion, and conclusion section. Also, it will be important to try to read the introduction sentences and conclusion sentences of each section as they generally summarize the paragraph. Be thoughtful and be through though. The answers are there and there can be several right answers. The research question and hypothesis may also give you evidence and help guide you. I recommend typing your answers on a word document and posting here to ensure you keep a copy. If you have technical issues, you must email IT and CC me. Please do not wait until the last minute. I use Turnitin, be sure to use your own words. The articles are attached below.  

  1.  These articles rely on many variables of interest. Using the “The Essence of Innocence” article, determine at least one Independent Variable (IDV) and at least one Dependent Variable (DV). Are there any control variables? Are there confounding variables? List them and discuss them briefly.
  2. Then, discuss how the authors are measuring the IDV and the DV. Be sure to use NOIR and other key terms in the guide in your discussion. Define what validity and reliability mean and how you personally feel the authors dealt with these concepts. 
  3. Finally, what were at least two findings in “The Essence of Innocence” article and what type of reasoning are they using, deductive or inductive?  
  4. Using the “Culture of Violence Article” determine what method they are using and discuss how it is different from the method used in “The Essence of Innocence”. How did the authors deal with reliability in this study?
  5. What is the population and sample used in the “Culture of Violence” article? How did they select their sample? Can they generalize? Why or why not? What type of reasoning is used, deductive or inductive?  
  6. What differences did you notice between the “Culture of Violence” and “Heat and Violence” papers? How did they discuss similar theories and constructs? Discuss at least three observations using terms from your text. 
  7. Using your own words, describe and define respect of persons, beneficence, and justice in relation to ethics in research. Then, discuss briefly at least three ethical considerations one should have in these two projects. Do the authors attend to these things? (All three can be based on one of the other article. Three total).

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