Using the proximate determinants framework, discuss the relative impacts of one of the following reproductive health issues: contraception, breastfeeding, abortion, sexual activity and infecundity on total fertility rates in Latin America versus Africa from both a family-centered and systems-based perspective. What are the policy implications of these findings? Provide a real-world example of this issue and explain how the policy impacts the low-income population. Similarly, explain why Japan, which has a relatively low contraceptive prevalence rate, has such a low total fertility rate.

Please provide at least two references